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Written by:
justin
Score: 1185
votes: 1217
Format: Article

 The 5-Minute Essential Shell Tutorial


Alright, far too often (especially in the IRC channels) there is a time where even the most beginner of users are faced with the terminal.  It has many names: terminal, shell, console, "command prompt" even as a carryover from those familiar with Windows.  Many people are frightened by it for some reason or another, so this tutorial will attempt to provide you the most basic of commands to enable navigation and basic system actions from the comfort of your keyboard.

Let's get started shall we?  Since everyone's Mint version can be different, I'm not going to detail how to actually open the terminal.  I'll assume you can find it in the menu or by right-clicking in the desktop.

Facts:

  1. You can do almost anything in a terminal which you would also do from a GUI interface.
     
  2. Most commands were designed first to work in the terminal, then a GUI put on top of them.  That's why some GUI's may feel clunky - they were an afterthought at times.
     
  3. The default location for your terminal to open from the menu is in your home folder, also known as ~
     
  4. Your current directory can be noted by the . operator.  Most commands when they act on the current folder selection, operate on .
     
  5. Commands, locations, and files are case sensitive.  /home is not the same as /HOME or /Home.
     
  6. Use the tab key to complete file names.  If you have a long driver titled, for example,
    driver-128947232jaseu.sh, simply type dri and it will fill in the rest, provided you don't have 2 names starting with "dri" and if you do, add another character to make it "driv" and try again.
     
  7. Almost any command can be read about in full using the manpage or by typing -h or --help after writing the initial command.  This syntax is either man command_namecommand_name -h, or command_name --help.
     
  8. To get even more information, you can use info.  A command can be searched for by using info command_name.  For most of these commands which are part of the coreutils package, one can find info as well using info coreutils command_name invocation where command_name is replaced by the command searched for.
     
  9. Almost any command can also explicitly display what is happening.  This is done usually by the -v or --verbose
     
  10. You can specify multiple command flags to a command at a time to get more information (see the ls -al example below.)
     
  11. Command names are not always obtuse - due to space limitations in the old days of Unix they were shortened, and the conventions stuck.

Commands:

cd -> Used to navigate the directories.  You can move to any location by path.

  1. cd This will move you back to your home, same as cd ~
  2. cd .. This will take you back exactly one directory.  Starting in /home/justin/Desktop, cd .. will put me into /home/justin.  This can be expanded upon, cd ../../ from the Desktop location instead will move me 2 back, from my Desktop to /home.
  3. cd foldername/ This will move you forward to the given folder in your current folder.  Take note of the missing prefix / it is an important omission.  if I am in /home/justin and I want to get to Desktop, I must type cd Desktop/ without the / before Desktop.  Typing / before it places us in the root of file system, which is incorrect.
  4. cd /some/other/path This will take you to the specified folder path, supposing it exists as typed exactly.  Don't forget your tab completion!

ls -> Used to list folder contents.  You can view many kinds of file and folder attributes.

  1. ls By itself, ls will simply list all your files in the current folder.  From fact #4, this literally does ls .
  2. ls -l Provides a longer listing format including owners, permissions, size, and date modified.
  3. ls -a Displays hidden files and folders as well as the normal listing.
  4. ls -al Combine options to display both hidden files and in the long format.
  5. ls -h Show file sizes in human readable format (K, M, Gbyte) filesizes instead of bytes.  Often used in conjuction with the -l flag.
  6. You can view files in directories you are not even in.  If I am in /home/justin/Desktop, and I want to view a file in /home/justin, I can do ls ../ list files one directory back (and not have to go back to do so.)

cp -> Copy files

  1. cp file /path/to/folder Copies specified file to the given path.
  2. cp -r folder /path/to/folder  Copies recursively the contents of the folder to another folder.
  3. cp *.extension /path/to/folder  Copies files matching the given extension to the new folder.  To copy all .doc files, it becomes cp *.doc /path/to/folder and the folder must exist.
  4. cp name* /path/to/folder  Copies all files starting with 'name' to the given folder.  To copy all files starting with example, it becomes cp example* /path/to/folder and the folder must exist.

mv -> Move files

  1. The syntax of mv is similar to the example above with cp exempt for example #2.  mv does not take the -r flag since moving a folder also moves its contents.  The syntax is not exact in all instances, but works with the above examples.  Consult your manpages for more details.

rm -> Remove files

  1. For all intents and purposes, removing files via rm is permanent.  It does not use the Trash bin.  Use with caution and make sure you are deleting explicitly what you want, not what you think you want.  If you decide to get fancy with your delete commands, it's probably going to come back to bite you.
  2. rm file  Remove the specified file from the system.
  3. rm -r folder  Remove the specified folder from the system
  4. rm -rf folder  Removes the specified folder forcefully from the system.  This command can severely break your configuration if used incorrectly as it will not prompt you if something critical is being deleted.  If you have to use this, chances are something more is broken or there was a mistake made.  This should only be used as an absolute last resort method and is not recommended.

nano -> full command line text editor

  1. One can edit files using nano in a terminal to do quick and dirty files all the way up to full configurations.  It's handy, but keep in mind it handles plain text files and programming files, things like MS Word documents will not open properly! 
  2. If a file is owned by root, it is not editable as a normal user.  nano must be prefixed with sudo in order to save changes.  Otherwise, it will open in read-only mode.
  3. nano newfile.whatever  Nano creates a new file of the specified name and opens it for editing.
  4. nano existing_file  Nano opens the existing file for editing.
  5. From inside nano
    1. Save file using the ctrl+o key combination, and either change the name or press entier to keep the same name.  This will save the file.
    2. Exit nano by using ctrl+x key combination.  If you have unsaved changes, it will ask if you want to save.

mkdir -> Create directories

  1. mkdir folder_name  Creates the folder with the specified name
  2. mkdir -p /path/to/folder/name  Creates each folder as necessary.  To create folder /home/justin/newfolder/2ndfolder, and only /home/justin exists, using mkdir -p will make both directories newfolder and 2ndfolder.

ps -> List processes

  1. ps aux  List all processes in detail running on the system, including user, Process ID (PID), and name of process.  Using this, one can view their process list and if necessary, kill unnecessary or stalled processes.

kill / killall / xkill -> Kill offending processes.

  1. kill PID  PID is a number referencing the offending process.  One should obtain the PID from a command like ps aux.  If a process refuses to die, one can alternatively specify kill -9 PID which should terminate the process by any means, even uncleanly or if it will mess up the system.
  2. killall program  Killall kills *by name* all instances of said program.  If there are for example 3 firefox sessions open, killall firefox will do just that; kill all firefox sessions.  kill would simply take the specified PID of the offending firefox process you wish to kill, and kill that one only.
  3. xkill is a GUI way to click and kill windows.  Typing in xkill should present a skull-and-crossbones icon, and the next window clicked on will be killed.

Pipes  ->  The most useful thing you will learn in *NIX.  Redirecting output of a program to anothers input.

  1. Pipes are represented by the ' straight bar ' otherwise known as the ' | ' key.
  2. It is a rarely used key in Windows, it is often found on the backslash key.
  3. They are used to link commands together.  Pipes take the output of one command and route it to be used as input for a second command chained together.
  4. Consult more online resources with information about pipes and their use as there are volumes.

> and >> redirectors  -> Send output to a file instead of the terminal.

  1. > is used to *overwrite* currently existing files contents and replace with the output from the new command.
  2. >> is used to *append* information to currently existing files.  This is useful for logging.
  3. Example: ps aux > processes.log  Sends the output of ps aux to the file processes.log for viewing the command output in a text editor and overwrites the current contents of the file. 

tee -> Send output to both a file and the terminal

  1. tee is used in conjunction with a ' | ' in order to take the command output and send it elsewhere.  This is useful if there are errors which fly by the screen before you can read them, this way whatever goes on the screen is also captured to a file.
  2. Example: dmesg | tee boot.txt would run the command dmesg which shows the initial boot info, and the ' | ' sends the output of dmesg to tee, which then does its job by sending it to the terminal and to the log file boot.txt.

File Execution -> So you want to execute files or programs from the terminal?  Make sure it's  marked executable.  If not, see Quick Tip #4 below.

  1. Need to execute a file in the current directory after it is marked executable?  The ./ operator can execute the file as a normal user provided you do not need root rights.  ./ literally means "in the current directory" so it does not work on files outside of the present directory.
     
  2. Need to execute a file not in the current directory?  You must pass the path to the proper executing program.  If it is a python program, it's python /path/to/file and if it is a shell file, it is sh /path/to/file as an example.  There are of course other programs, but these will be the most common for beginners.
     
  3. Need to execute a file with root rights because you received operation not permitted?  Prefix the command with sudo.  Thus, from the above example, sudo python /path/to/file will execute the script with root rights.
     
  4. Need to execute a GUI program from the terminal?  Simply type the program name (case sensitive!) and it will launch.  This will render the current terminal unusable.  Closing the terminal while the program is open will kill the program.  A better way is to background the program, using program_name & and then typing the word exit at the terminal to close it and keep the process running.
     
  5. Need to run a GUI program with root rights from the terminal?  Prefix it with gksudo or gksu and not sudo.  Using sudo to launch GUI applications is a bad habit and should be avoided.
     
  6. Do not, do *not* use sudo simply because something receives "Operation not permitted."  Keep in mind what you are doing as you can absolutely *destroy* systems by running commands in the wrong place with root rights.  This point cannot be emphasized enough.  Make sure your files come from reputable sources.

Quick tips:

  1. Lost yourself in a directory?  Not sure where you are?  Type pwd to print working directory.
     
  2. Want to calculate your disk space quickly?  df -h can give you a quick checkup.
     
  3. Want to calculate the size of a folder or file quickly?  du -cksh target_name can do exactly that.  Want to calculate the size of the current folder?  du -cksh .
     
  4. Need to mark a file executable?  chmod +x filename can do that.  Next time you see a file you need to execute and it is not marked executable, now you know how to fix it.
     
  5. Want to mount an iso like Daemon-Tools on Windows?  Linux has this functionality built in.  Simply create a directory somewhere, say /home/justin/isomount, and issue the command mount -o loop /path/to/myisofile.iso /home/justin/isomount and the contents will be mounted inside that folder.
     
  6. Run a command before, you need to re-run it, but you can't really remember what it was exactly?  Type history into the terminal and it will print out your command history.  Want to clear your history?  history -c will wipe the information.

Tags: bash, shell, commands, terminal
Created: 4 years ago.
Last edited: 4 years ago.
Read 72857 times.

Comments
1 day ago

schwierz
super  
1 week ago

simplejuan
enlightening!  
1 week ago

debabrata
Thanks for this tutorial. I needed it.  
1 month ago

tinman3446
thanks just what i needed !!  
1 month ago

nacho75
Thanks for the tutorial, good starting point.  
1 month ago

vaughan
Yes great shame it has not been included into the users manual. I have just moved to Linux Mint from Windows,so reasonable learning curve.However I have not found the copy and past command when using Terminal,but will get there. Also have wrote quite a few programes in Delpi,so quite a wake up call here going back to basics.  
1 month ago

noderunner5
Thanks for this Tutorial. Just the thing when getting started.  
1 month ago

packesniffer
Thanks for this tutorial. Much appreciated.  
1 month ago

suresh_p
great info, thank you so much  
1 month ago

gotvlad
Good job!
Thanks
 
2 months ago

VezzaRose
I'm a total noob, and I am sorry, I do not know what you are talking about at all. Where do I type this stuff. How about a walk through from start to finish on something easy to get people started on this stuff. Just a suggestion. I'm turning to a high school geek to walk me through and teach me because all of you who know what you are doing have forgotten what it's like to be a noob.
 
2 months ago

TonyF
I learned this stuff years ago when I was mastering (ye'r right) DOS and getting introduced to Unix. I like it that there is a place to look for this cheat sheet. Thanks.  
2 months ago

gn0m3boy
I already knew most of this stuff...love the article though. There were a few commands I had forgotten.  
2 months ago

ibDoug
To be honest, I didn't do this stuff in windows with any luck I won't have to do too much of it with Mint. But hey learning is growing.  
2 months ago

Ikem
For shell scripts I use "$PWD" instead of "." and "$HOME" instead of "~". That saved me a lot of troubles.

 
2 months ago

alkali
very helpful, thanks.
 
3 months ago

killkenny59
very useful info thank you  
3 months ago

HarryKnutz
Thanks for the info & time given  
3 months ago

zizek
sehr gut! danke!  
3 months ago

gagaman
Perfect tutorial for a linux newbie. Thanks alot.  
3 months ago

MintUser201408
this tutorial looks very useful, not only for LM but for almost any linux distro. Thank you very much for your effort to make public. Best regards.  
4 months ago

gnasher2000
thanxs i will be needing this  
4 months ago

suncoaster
Useful information, bookmarked for reference.  
4 months ago

Old-Dog
Very good tutorial. Much appreciated.
 
4 months ago

RonMoon
Very helpful.  
4 months ago

amasa
Really excellent. Thanks Justin. Hope you are still getting our comments after 3 years.  
5 months ago

Hub1
Great CLI Introduction, aint no beginner, still learned something ;)  
5 months ago

robertfbn
Thanks Justin, it's always good to start at the beginning.  
5 months ago

pogiako12345
Really useful! Thanks! :D  
5 months ago

rayxoxo
Using Mint 16, #3 du-cksh, etc. did not seem to work on my terminal  
5 months ago

jaygee3rd
Like a lot of others I too started with wndows 3.1 and found the command line very useful, however over the years I have forgotten most of it, it will be fun relearning.  
5 months ago

Winstove
Thank you for this. I shall bookmark it for future reference.  
6 months ago

rmholway
Great! Well resumed and direct.
Reminds me of the time when I had hair on my head and used the DOS on floppies! :)
 
6 months ago

Shakeyacres
Makes a great Quick Reference for the newbie. Thanks  
6 months ago

rajbarath
Thank you extremely useful.  
6 months ago

xfirebg
Thanks for the tutorial!  
6 months ago

jfleen
I started on Win 3.1 & remember using the command line frequently, but it's been a couple of decades since then. This is a great intro to the terminal. Thanks!  
6 months ago

bkjaya1952
Thank you very much  
6 months ago

Cinnaminty3
Good info to know.
@: )
 
6 months ago

almeriden
Thanks  
6 months ago

coliea
Excellent shell tutorial for a Linux noob. Thanks.  
6 months ago

Peyroutel
Very helpful for us oldies, thank you.  
6 months ago

realist2000
Thank you very much for this tutorial.  
7 months ago

poly
very helpful for a beginner like me , thank you !  
7 months ago

fabernat
Big Help, Thanks  
7 months ago

bvd1940
A big help to this 73 year old new convert to Mint, Thanks  
7 months ago

Bee1
Short and Sweet.  
7 months ago

savdutt01
yeah this one is good but im asking how can i use c programming in linux.Currently im beginning to learn c from book C PROGRAMMING FOR BEGINNER
-MICHAEL VINE pls tell me what to do next
 
7 months ago

jgstef
Excellent tutorial! Thank you!  
8 months ago

armagedoom
Great job! Very helpful for a beginner  
8 months ago

armagedoom
Great job! Very helpful for a beginner  
8 months ago

Bee1
Taking it very slow so that it can marinate.  
8 months ago

matsa41
Why this great article do not have a link to download it? I don't remember without paper the commands. Even better was, if it was in Finnish language. I am a old man and never learn English in shcool because they don't teach languages there then.  
8 months ago

DaniellaTerry


I must admit, this caster dr.marnish is real. i called dr.marnish +15036626930 when my boyfriend departed from me. but since my boyfriend came back I definitely believe dr.marnish@yahoo. com is real
Daniella Terry
 
8 months ago

tgeorge43
hello, thanks, v good tutorial. One question, as a Linux Newbie I went through the process of installing Mint alongside Windows 7 on my PC, including entering a username and password.... but although it's all working with me as superuser if I try to log in using the username and password I suppplied at install, it does not recognise them. What have i done wrong/how can I re-set username and password? thanks very much
 
9 months ago

Rodlea
I'm new to linux and I am pleased to find such quality tutorials. Thanks.  
9 months ago

cork
Great tutorial!

If you are new to linux, then this is for you.

If you are experienced, then this is a nice refresher.
 
9 months ago

Gamma
Great for Terminal Noobs  
9 months ago

yabbar
Thanks for a very good starting document for beginners.  
9 months ago

greenebelly
this made my decision to get mint. Thanks, from a total noob.  
9 months ago

DavidZ
Pretty basic but good info for n00bs.  
9 months ago

TimT
Good start. Very well written.

About point 2: How can one find the command corresponding to a GUI - in particular, the "show desktop" one?
 
9 months ago

JwhittyUClan
Excellent  
9 months ago

garethmcdonnell
Too early to tell and will have to study this article more to get to grips with the command line in Linux  
9 months ago

IanDSamson
The pipe key \" | \" is often used in Windows, but only in the command line
such as TYPE <> | more
I guess it's the same in Linux, only in Terminal emulator.
 
9 months ago

Hiace
Handy writing, although it could be updated as mentioned earlyer in the comments.
There's quite a few usefull tips in the comment that deserve a spot in the howto.

I'm lucky to have a Dos os background, from wich i reconize quite a few commands :D
But still, one is never to old to learn new tricks :)
 
10 months ago

hoppy
just installed mint and as a total newcomer this is excellent help.....lots to learn. by the way had no trouble installing mint alongside windows 7 on the acer aspire.  
10 months ago

unikk
simple and instructive,THANKS  
11 months ago

sagarpdalvi08
Thanks  
11 months ago

susannoel
I never completely understood your article the first time. Will study it again. Thank you. Susan  
11 months ago

mr_turners
Excellent! Thanx!  
1 year ago

l3chu6a
excellent  
1 year ago

jstmyke99
thanks,excellent job!!!  
1 year ago

disPPlay
Very good tutorial for newcomers to linux and to linux mint who don't understand how to interact with the terminal.  
1 year ago

grumpycrocodile
thanks, good tutorial, starting to enjoy using terminal  
1 year ago

cappy
I notice that the article has not been edited for 3 years. It would be helpful if someone who is well versed in Linux could take the suggestions that have been made and write an article for those that need the absolute basics. Looking back in the comments it is obvious that there is a great need for this. Those that have come from an O/S (Operating System) that uses a GUI (Graphical User Interface) have no concept of a command line structure. Many do not know even the most basic abbreviations. I would do it myself, but I do not have the knowledge to do this.


Many who have read this piece state that they are just as confused as before they read it. For experienced Linux users it is difficult to remember how little newcomers really know and how much help they need.
 
1 year ago

cappy
I agree with korpu as someone like myself, an absolute newby, needs very basic help. (even the font confused me: at the explanation of ls it took me 10 minutes to figure out what the l was. was it a 1, was it an I, was it an |?) However the article did help a lot but I am old and was exposed to DOS. I imagine someone who has never seen command lines before would be really confused. Many of us coming from years of Windows need the absolute basics. What does bash mean? I know from DOS that cd means change directory, but something as simple as knowing that can make a huge difference. This is not to say that that I don't appreciate what the article says. My thanks to the author, because it did help me immensely.  
1 year ago

Korpu
It's not basic enough for beginners. It would help to tell where it is, what it can do for me (not abstract benefits, concrete result that I can't get other way), how I can do what. In start Menu > Terminal, the black window opens, shows username@computer name and $. Now what? And what and why should I do? Action-result information, not abstract concepts, please. Why so, see "How to "help" someone to use computer" (http://community.linuxmint.com/tutorial/view/190). Appreciate the effort, though.  
1 year ago

Tmac
A good start; short and to the point.  
1 year ago

FrankMotard
A usefull tutorial  
1 year ago

dogsolitude_uk
Splendid! I am now a yellow belt in sudo.
Thank you :)
 
1 year ago

blaine00
Nice! Every new GNU/Linux user should have this on their fridge.  
1 year ago

mason_c_lm
@hreyes: su root  
1 year ago

hreyes
I'm new to Linux, but your tutorial is very good. Thanks.  
1 year ago

hreyes
How could i switch to root?  
1 year ago

Leos
Well, This is EXCELLENT! Thank you Justin!  
1 year ago

Jim45
This is a very handy quick reference for new Linux users like myself. I started from MS-Dos in the old days and feel comfortable at the command line. For those without that kind of experience, a more step-by-step approach might be helpful. Take a look at this Unix/Linux tutorial: http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Teaching/Unix/  
1 year ago

webdarek
http://webdarek.tumblr.com/

Protecting files / folders from unwanted deletion is very important security on the tasklist of Unix Administrators. On Linux boxes you can use the chattr command and that works ine on all my Ubuntu based servers.

Let’s give you some examples how chattr work under Linux:
To make a folder undeletable, run:

sudo chattr +i -R foldername

After that, you can’t delete, rename or do anything with this folder. But if you don’t need this folder anymore or you’ve got to apply some changes to it run:

sudo chattr -i -R foldername

To make a file undeletable, run:

sudo chattr +i filename

To be able to change or delete the file, run:

sudo chattr -i filename
 
1 year ago

Bee1
I have a long road ahead of me!  
1 year ago

zantaz
i still read it for 23th time but i cant understood very good ... sorry ...  
1 year ago

tj12
Thank you!  
1 year ago

peter_w
very useful introduction  
1 year ago

leelakrishna302
thanks  
1 year ago

mhayta
They are mostly needed commands thanks..  
1 year ago

toroblanco
Excellent! Thank you!  
1 year ago

zantaz
good and nice introduction of shell command ...  
1 year ago

omadav311
Thanks man! You save me a lot of time!  
1 year ago

gerrytc
Excelent  
1 year ago

nijnij
o dear i wrote the comment out and managed to lose it..... thanks for tute community dudes.... im lovin it and so is my lad....hell im rubbish with command but its a start and its what i needed..... funny thing is i feel safer online and i dunno why ....cheers again... i will suss it out im determined to leave windows alone forever......wished i had swapped over years ago when my neighbour told me to....arghhh we live n learn.  
1 year ago

boricua21
I'm a newbie to linux and really appreciate the collaboration within this community.  
1 year ago

zantaz
good write text ...  
1 year ago

sonofadoc
I'm brand new to linux and this is just what I was looking for, a comprehensive place to start. Learning the command line is just like learning another programming or coding language. Precisely the point - a new language to learn. Most of the tutorials I've seen so far are speaking bigger words than I know at this point, so I don't understand much of what they're saying. I'm so glad you left this up after being here for quite awhile.

Not only do I want to learn the command line, it is one of the main reasons I want to learn linux. That's where the power is!
 
1 year ago

elfaure
Justin-

Agreed, rm -rf some_folder is dangerous business for the newbe. Then again, so is sudo -i but at least you only have to enter your password once for the entire interactive root shell session, and you can then execute all sudo commands to follow unprompted. Good when you need to be root for more than a single command.
 
1 year ago

elfaure
Also add:

sudo apt-get install some_pkg
 
1 year ago

elfaure
Good, but add:

find
which
echo $PATH
PATH=${PATH}:/Path_to_add
sudo -i
mount | grep tmpfs
 
1 year ago

robert1407
Most of this is way above my skill level. I just hope that I can use he operating system  
1 year ago

pingvin
Дякую за чудову операційну систему.  
1 year ago

owlfeathers
You cover quite a bit of ground in this tutorial. I just wanted to mention that you have to log in as superuser [sudo] to successfully mount a drive, and that if you want to use a command that you've just recently used, you can use the up-arrow key to scroll through them.  
1 year ago

nicalatinman
Thank you so much for the tutorial, it helps a lot to beginners like me.  
1 year ago

kedem
good  
1 year ago

Vashthestampede
Thank You!!  
1 year ago

owsla
Thanks for taking the time to put this together. Now I'm off to dive deeper into the rabbit hole.  
1 year ago

disPPlay
Great tutorial.
Congratulations
 
1 year ago

gadgetboi
i know that some command are simmilar to DOS command but Linux is different and we must understand the basic first :D  
1 year ago

Mpegforever
Thanks. Did never hear nano or killall. Well, will continue to use Windoze for work (unfortunately) but am starting now Maya for personal use.
Compliments for the good work.
 
1 year ago

SteveFAL
**PROPS AND A SUGGESTION***
Very nice tutorial! My command-line experience goes back to DOS 2.0 and I still find myself inadvertently typing "dir" instaead of "ls", and, being new to Linux still have a heckuva lot to learn about the basics. The pipe "|" is a sublimely powerful tool that should have its own tutorial;- whoever invented that deserves to be rich and happy.
The occasional bit (no pun intended) of dry developer humor in the shell really lightens things up too. Developer humor? How about the "less" command doing more than the "more" command. Just like the old saying "less is more", except in this case, less is more than more... Monty Python couldn't have thought of a better name for the command.
Also, I still get a chuckle when I run "sudo apt-get moo".
ANYWAY, I *do* have a suggestion here that may help the (really) green newbies a bit, RE: The tutorial fact 11. "Command names are not always obtuse - due to space limitations in the old days of Unix they were shortened, and the conventions stuck."
My suggestion is to mention the word (or words) that the command abbreviation was derived form. Surely most people can figure out that "cp" is short for "copy" and "mv" for "move", but it may not be immediately obvious that "ls" is short for "list" and "cd" for "change directory". YES, a little thought will make many commands' abbreviations apparent, but once beyond the very basic ones seeing them in print right after the abbreviation will make them easier to not just figure out but to remember, i.e. cat (Concatenate).
The command line is much more useful if people REMEMBER the commands. :-)
 
1 year ago

Romantis
perfect thx a lot  
1 year ago

isabelambrocio
One of the reasons that people look into Linux is because they are sick of corporate greed and want windows off their computers for good. Linux now can do just about anything that windows can do but learning it is like learning Chinese and your not from China.

The word terminal is as foreign as a rock from Mars to most, I remember it cause that's what a computer was before windows came out, just a black screen with a prompt. You had to tell the computer what to do. It's not a multiple choice thing, if you didn't know the command you couldn't even and still can't ask it for help.

I still can't find a complete and easy to understand listing of the old DOS commands never mind Linux commands.

As an example of the confusion people run into is the DOT command you speak of, I've played with that for an hour now and still don't know what the heck it is, and I understand enough of DOS to get around to doing most things in DOS. Most people have never seen or heard of DOS.

I think Mint has a real chance of winning over windows. Most people use their computers these days for Internet, emails, chat, music, and videos; all of which Linux Mint does with ease. Like one article said “There are only a few programs that keep people using windows” and I'll add ease of loading programs and drivers. But just a few.

Corporate has just become way too greedy and they have made it blunt that one does not own the product they are paying for just the medium it's written on. They also control the governments that pass the laws that protect their greed. We the people don't.

I'm a capitalist, I don't pay for stuff I can't own, and with the Internet I don't need a medium. – Corporate you lose – call it what you will.

But if we the people could get a few tutorials that change Chinese(Linux) to English(windows) that transition could be a lot faster.

With windows 8 trying to be as confusing as Linux and the added point that once you learn windows 8 it's just a pain to use I think the end of windows is in the horizon.

But thanks for the tutorial it gave me a few of the commands needed to navigate the command line.

By the way I used Mint to read this article and write this post. A free office program, that has got to stick in Microsoft's side. You got too greedy Bill or should I say WallStreet.
 
1 year ago

DMNashir
Help me a lot.. thx..  
1 year ago

surya_73
thanks
 
1 year ago

ThomIves
All the things that I have heard my Unix/Linux friends mention for years and haven't had time to learn or ask are all in here ... and more! Thanks1  
1 year ago

ray4720
Brilliant start for a newbie
Feel like i am getting somewhere at last
 
1 year ago

manojkumar
thanks
 
1 year ago

thomasrivaa
I'm newbie...
I'm learning by doing.
Thanks, Pal!!!
 
1 year ago

Benjamin1974
Sweet! now if I could just find the terminal command for clicking "like" on FB....
 
1 year ago

prashantnalin
Still I am getting nothing...................
 
1 year ago

jimijab
Awesome. terminal is very daunting for noobies but this is rather helpful.  
1 year ago

kb5zxm
It took me longer, and I did not finish  
1 year ago

mfzn
i prefer terminal than gui
terminal is faster
 
1 year ago

BigBonsai
The only thing that annoys me every time is that "mv" cannot move folders, or rather move folders recursively (meaning it doesn't take the -r option). Annoying. GUI is much better in this respect. Quick CTRL+X and CTRL+V.  
1 year ago

keertushar
Thanks  
1 year ago

MartinEdwards86
Thank you for the info!  
1 year ago

lucky7
Thank You all for this work and help. I just switched to this os and due to the the fact that I was sick with window's os and the problems that always pop up I joined the Linux Community. Since I have been on windows crack since win 3.1 this is simalar to the old dos and makes sence. Mint is amaizing and thanks for a better OS  
1 year ago

Mart777
A really good overview for somebody like me, who has only used the terminal so far to input commands, without knowing what they actually mean and how they inter-relate.

I have started to use it alongside other learning media eg.YouTube.

Good foundation material.
 
1 year ago

petexanh
Really good tutorial. In a world where so many linux/unix tutorials give you a keyword and just tell you to look up the man page, its great to see one that cuts straight through to the more commonly used basics to give users the confidence in the terminal environment to explore further for themselves.  
1 year ago

code4j
Great :)  
1 year ago

yatriparis
Light and clear. Thanks. Jacques. Happy new year !  
1 year ago

RogerJones
Great tutorial for an old newbie like me.  
1 year ago

blueXrider

mekanik7777
i feel so dumb, i just dont get all these terms and ways to use the "shell". why isnt it just in regular language, is there a more of a beginner tutorial, sorry im from the usa, we have crummy schools

DON'T BLAME THE SCHOOLS FOR YOUR EDUCATION PAL. YOU WERE THE ONE THAT HAD TO LEARN THE STUFF
 
1 year ago

mekanik7777
i feel so dumb, i just dont get all these terms and ways to use the "shell". why isnt it just in regular language, is there a more of a beginner tutorial, sorry im from the usa, we have crummy schools  
1 year ago

cdustybk
Great tutorial! I only wish I could have seen it when I was starting.

I think one nice thing to add could be whenever typing your password (for example after sudo some_command), no characters appear for security reasons.
That is probably the one question I get asked more than anything. Again, great tutorial!
 
1 year ago

longbowz
I have to say Mint tutorial is most user friendly to newbies I've ever seen. Thanks! \o/  
1 year ago

diabolist
Good ice-breaker for the terminal noob  
1 year ago

sigshane
Awesome down and dirty primer on the terminal, man.  
2 years ago

stephenktatton
This is a good straightforeward tutorial,but whenever i try to use a terminal I can put in a command but everything freezes when I attempt to type in my p/word. So it hasn't really helped with my particular problem.
Apart from that, BRILLIANT.
 
2 years ago

david_a
Good information for people to have.

Under "Commands", in the "cd" section, you say that typing .. takes you back. People might think this means "back where I was a minute ago" - that's the usual meaning of "back". Probably this should be changed to "up" instead. "Up" sounds strange, but at least it isn't wrong.
 
2 years ago

Lubuntu
Looks like a great place to start. I've been playing around with Mint for a while but it's time to get serious about Linux and this is cool since I'm used to knowing my way around a command prompt in windows.  
2 years ago

linuxXTC
Awesome tut :) lots of commands wow thank you  
2 years ago

da1vinci
非常好的教程。
Good tutorial! Thanks!
 
2 years ago

callet09
Thanks. Great tutorial  
2 years ago

olemorten
very nice tutorial!  
2 years ago

derekpmiles
I'll be back I'm sure ,what I needed to get started.  
2 years ago

Althorax
Good stuff here for this noob!  
2 years ago

kkdg
If you write a book, I will buy it definitely  
2 years ago

kkdg
great tutorial in a nutshell!!  
2 years ago

wisdomlight
#A tutorial that demonstrates lreal life examples would be highly appreciated.
I do not understand what can actually be achieved by an avarege user like me who knows very little about computing.
Thank you for the conscie explanation.
 
2 years ago

Neorg_64
It took me more then 5 minutes and I will consult it many more times. Great start for me.  
2 years ago

toniround
Just what I am looking for  
2 years ago

bdukes11
Great for beginners like me.  
2 years ago

Zebaztian
Excellent! *****  
2 years ago

timothy23
Clear, useful, well done.  
2 years ago

Bear65
Boss thank you!  
2 years ago

redeemed
Very good tutorial> Just what I was needing. A few possible typo's, but still clear and concise.
Is this a typo?;
The syntax of mv is similar to the example above with cp exempt for example #2. Should EXEMPT be EXCEPT?
 
2 years ago

oldfagin
Great tutorial... Covers the basics and kick starts the old grey-cells into wanting to know more!  
2 years ago

Doyle
Good, but please add something like this to the 'rm' command:

"Make sure you are deleting exactly what you want, by testing the file selection using the 'ls' command with the same file selection criteria."

I figured out this stategy in 1993(Microsoft DOS) when I accidentally typed 'del c:\*.*' instead of del a:\*.* at my bosses main work computer and it took all of the rest of a long lunchtime to fix it, finishing just before he got back. I was clearing my full floppy before copying a single file. I won't forget the hour of high stress and potential loss of reputation, access privleges and pay from that mistake.
 
2 years ago

JML103
Nice tutorial... Helps a lot  
2 years ago

JML103
Nice tutorial... Helps a lot  
2 years ago

JML103
Nice tutorial... Helps a lot  
2 years ago

grimdestripador
Sed and Grep are important. Grep can be used with other programs to search. Use Grep on Search Terms: grep searchTerm $(find . -name "*.ext") . Use itself to find in files of this directory: grep -r --include="*.ext" searchTerm  
2 years ago

Toxic
Thank you for these tips. Now I'm going to use pipes more extensively.  
2 years ago

bibliafelipe
Very good tutorial!  
2 years ago

voor
really helpful  
2 years ago

rcraig3
Help to be able to have a source of information you can use to make a cheat sheet.  
2 years ago

ChillyWilly
Awesome! Thanks  
2 years ago

nunya
useful, thanks  
2 years ago

Jimmy_
Thanks this will come in handy  
2 years ago

bibliafelipe
Very good, thank you very much for this Tutorial.
 
2 years ago

kp99
Thanks. Very Helpful...  
2 years ago

Thinker
Nice  
2 years ago

mdouzzi
Great job! Very helpful for a beginner  
2 years ago

arovella
Very good.  
2 years ago

backbone
great tutorials for novice  
2 years ago

mark-anthony161
Great... Thanks  
2 years ago

NuR1L
terimakasih  
2 years ago

RavingLoony
Good for a start but a lot of newbies will still be confused - not necessarily by the article but words like promote/demote when voting - today people use like/not like whether we like it or not! And I speak as a wrinklie.  
2 years ago

antonrorepande
waow, good share..

as a beginner, good for me..
 
2 years ago

chris2006
Great help! Thank you!  
2 years ago

mdouzzi
Thank you very much for this tutorial  
2 years ago

zrslg01
Nice and handy, but still rtfm :) I know one guy, who can really benefit from this. best  
2 years ago

XavierTG
Thanks a lot for your tutorial.  
2 years ago

hexmodz
its help me alot  
2 years ago

capeferrelometal
This is just great. I just installed Mint 12 LXDE, and love it so far. Never liked the theatrics of Windows.
I have not typed a command since I used Wang UNIX systems mearly two decades ago, so it's great to get back into the fun.
The tutorial is wonderful. Nice to know things under the flash is still intuitive and useful! Thanks!
 
2 years ago

paulthepenguin
This is great for a new user like me :) thank you  
2 years ago

hankrich
thanks, this is very helpful.  
2 years ago

AllanLindh
Unix is a beast, but you almost made me smile. Thanks very much. Long live VMS!  
2 years ago

newbiewon
I have learned a great deal about Linux history, how to load opperating systems, how to coexist with windows and how to recover from some disasters. Now I want to become a Linux user and this is a great start. Thanks for thinking of the newbies!  
2 years ago

gtones
can these commands dependent on which version of Mint someone is using?  
2 years ago

soulrain
Just went threw this list. Great stuff. Thanks for taking the time to upload it.  
2 years ago

apet666
thanks man.. god bless..  
2 years ago

AshBaby
very useful  
2 years ago

userXVII
Great place to start. Thanks.  
2 years ago

joroxrd
Thank you very much!  
2 years ago

tms2004
Thanks really helpful .  
2 years ago

kututech
Nice share, very helpful for me..
 
2 years ago

fxb3
Very nice, well-written tutorial.  
2 years ago

sillyousu
hi . Can I translate it into Chinese and post it on my blog?  
2 years ago

adibhanna
this is very useful! thank you.  
2 years ago

dazw2000
This post is great for the shell commands in a terminal window. Wishing that i had read them as these are of great use to new users. May be i shall not keep going in circles. Many Thaks  
2 years ago

stonetrek
Thanks, just what I needed  
2 years ago

24horsonline
Poderia atualizar para o novo mint

It could bring up to date for new mint
 
2 years ago

nicabod
Woopsie! Misplaced closing double quote...

Suggested edit:

"... directory somewhere, say /home/justin/isomount, and issue the command

mount -o loop /path/to/myisofile.iso /home/justin/isomount" <---HERE

and the contents will be mounted inside that folder. I added blank lines,

Should be:

Suggested edit:

"... directory somewhere, say /home/justin/isomount, and issue the command

mount -o loop /path/to/myisofile.iso /home/justin/isomount

and the contents will be mounted inside that folder." I added blank lines,
(et cetera).

Sorry!

(OK with me if the @moderator fixes my original post and deletes this.)

Would be very nice to have a Preview function in this software. Also desirable would be a time-limited (half hour?) ability to edit your message after posting, and enable the Insert key.

Best, [nb]

 
2 years ago

nicabod
Oh, dear. I just spent about half an hour typing a moderately-long comment, then hit Promote (before "Add comment"), and lost everything. Should have known better. Only an expert could dig through RAM and (maybe) find what I'd typed. Second time will omit and be more concise:

Anyhow: I've come across various explanations of [bash] and the CLI, but usually abandoned them part way through. This is, imho, excellent writing, as many others have said. (I didn't read most comments, just scanned).

A few thoughts: If you ever do [rm -rf], do seriously consider clearing history [history -c] as soon as you can, so you won't do {up arrow} Enter.

I'm still mostly mystified by loop mounting. Your example is helpful, but there's a quite-unfortunate line break just where a newbie doesn't really know whether to type a space or not.

Suggested edit:

"... directory somewhere, say /home/justin/isomount, and issue the command

mount -o loop /path/to/myisofile.iso /home/justin/isomount"

and the contents will be mounted inside that folder. I added blank lines, because line endings will differ once this is posted*. It's better to have a too-short line precede an important command (or other input [text]) than to risk embedding a {newline} within a command (or URL).

*Old-timers will recall a need to hit Enter at the end of every line; this was before automatic line wrap and flowed format became common.

This collection is good enough to merit translation (as in Wikipedia). (Care to make a Wikipedia article out of this? That way, volunteers will translate!)

Best regards,
[nb]
midnight hacker in 1960
 
2 years ago

paladin_knight
Clear enough but please add these commands:
1. uname
2. whoami
3. which
4. su
5. passwd
etc.. there are tons of basic commands. need to be updated.
 
2 years ago

thetomster
very useful for cli newbies like me.  
2 years ago

IslandWolf
Thanks for the info, both old and new!  
3 years ago

thoudahl
Nice first introduction. thx  
3 years ago

Arundathi
Merci beaucoup c'est très clair !  
3 years ago

paull59
Thanks this was a great refresher....  
3 years ago

andrei90
Thank you very much for all the details.
Cheers mate.
 
3 years ago

inf3RNo
thank you =) nice tut.  
3 years ago

salmane
clear enough for newbie, i like this.  
3 years ago

nassosdim
Excellent resource for beginners. I'll share it on twitter :)  
3 years ago

coolsaddam2525
THANKS....
 
3 years ago

krause
Excelente para quem está começando a trabalhar com linux  
3 years ago

linuxfanatik
About turning this tutorial into a PDF file, I have (Under Libreoffice Writer) a facility whereby when I use my Epson Printer to Print the document under Libreoffice (you just copy and paste it into a blank document, name it then go to print) you get the choice of printing to file, actually print, or turn it into a PDF form - which is great! Linuxfanatik  
3 years ago

linuxfanatik
I have several 'guides' to the CLI (Command Line Interface) Console or Terminal using various Bash or Shell Scripts, but the one above is the most clear and useful one! I used to do admin with Unix some forty years ago, when I worked for Plessey PLC, but when you move onto something else you tend to forget familiar scripts and texts, and anyway, Unix has moved on from Bell Associates and Berkeley University in California and improved since BSD and Solaris came out. I miss Solaris as a Free unix system since Oracle took it over - who can afford to pay the prices Oracle want to charge when your retired? I will be happy to see other Tutorials by Justin, like Clem , he's got a great following and knows a lot that we can all use in Linux Mint.Linuxfanatik  
3 years ago

moxamandeel
Thanks
It's nice
 
3 years ago

odyszor
Thanks, very nice intro  
3 years ago

dwcunplugged
This is a very good intro to the command line. I just started studying for the LPI level 1 exam, and this is very much the first stuff you learn. Great job.  
3 years ago

Examiner
Thank you! From a newbie...  
3 years ago

Kulato
Very much needed for those who are new to Linux.  
3 years ago

geomcd1949
refrigerator: n. L., a device which, if you look inside it, you should find a cold beer.  
3 years ago

ranjith
this is great it had helped me to built knowledge a lot thank u!  
3 years ago

sidsparks
I made a pdf of this in response to a couple of comments but don't know where to put it to link to so here is another option. The whole of this can be copied by selecting the text using the mouse in the same way that you would in a text editor or word processor then use the normal copy command (Ctrl C ) or right click and select copy. The text can then be pasted into any editor or word processor of your choice using either Ctrl V or the paste command from the edit menu. Once the text has been pasted it can be printed or saved.  
3 years ago

Nills
really thank you. very helpful info for me.  
3 years ago

Vishal
nice one got to know commands which i was not aware..  
3 years ago

erictennant
Great for beginners, I think a PDF file would be a good idea.  
3 years ago

jarhead0311
B nice to have 'Print out' button on these pages.  
3 years ago

Labby
Very nice tutorial! Most of these commands I already knew, but it's a great resource for beginners.  
3 years ago

kingugo
very helpful info for me as a newbie as i hope to learn more. wont forget to say; it was hard to read and practice  
3 years ago

blueXrider
What would be nice here is to wrap this all up and have a download-able PDF  
3 years ago

blueXrider
Excellent information  
3 years ago

robman1987
Good  
3 years ago

ivy_s
Very good for newbies.  
3 years ago

breaker
@peterdoug - http://tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy/html/

The entire http://tldp.org is awesome, it stands for;

The Linux Documentation Project

Here's a good jumping off point also - http://tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/categories.html
 
3 years ago

RavS
Great! Thanks :)  
3 years ago

Seoolas
Very helopful. I shall be refering back here a lot as I go...  
3 years ago

pois3
all this was needed, it takes time to learn this. thank you. Most excellent!  
3 years ago

Biren
Useful indeed. Thankyou.  
3 years ago

kenhall5551
Very good tutorial. great starting point for newbies. Thanks  
3 years ago

cwoodsp
As a newbie to Mint and, by extension Linux, it's handy to have easy-to-follow tips and guides. This is one such resource. Well done.
 
3 years ago

dodjie60
And to add to all this great tutorial, my favorite is typing xman in terminal to show manual browser in GUI. I've been using this since Red Hat 9 and SuSE 9 (I think).  
3 years ago

LONNIEFUTURE
Unknown by most you can find and install from the menu as well as any terminal "it's awsome" great thinking.  
3 years ago

peterdoug
Hi,

Very helpful.

I would like to see a link to a similarly helpful article that explains the Linux file system as it is so different from Windows.

That would help me get my head around the terminal.

Newbie to Linux, who's used UNIX, DOS, Windows (95-XP) to do work.

Many thanks
 
3 years ago

jesusmiranda
Really helpful for me... very good tutorial.

Many Thanks, man!
 
3 years ago

genothomas
Nice article...  
3 years ago

Leaf
great tutorial  
3 years ago

justin
mysoomro: Thanks for the comment. :) You don't fear the command line, you always keep in mind that just because something doesn't work, don't prefix it with sudo by force of habit. Becoming accustomed to a prompt or denial of an action due to improper rights to the system is no reason for negligence.

Please don't change the meaning by taking only a snippet of the intended comment. Fearing the command line and not realizing consequences of quick actions are two different things. That is the intention of the warning.

I've seen several instances of people who state "It didn't work, so I used sudo" only to cause damage to the system (such as a mass chown -R or something involving local Xorg files.) The goal is to bring this thought to the forefront of the mind when using things that have such impacts. It should not be any different for a personal computer than a mail cluster which hosts 25000 mailboxes - good habits make for proper execution.
 
3 years ago

mysoomro
Great tutorial. Really helpful for starting up. Thanks.
But I have a question. Do we really don't have to fear command line? You first said don't be afraid, then in bold face font, you warned that, : we can *destroy* systems by running commands in the wrong place with root rights .
 
3 years ago

thecorfiot
Great introduction to Bash. Nobody should fear the command line!  
3 years ago

dazw2000
This is great and well worth taking the time and effort to really read and learn what the commands and the extension on the actual end of the command does, in the terminal. and what effects it has on the system when you use them. Its really a must for me and one shall highly recommend this tutorial to others. Thank You So So Much.  
3 years ago

intelliginix
Need more info on the bash shell? Check out the Advanced Bash Scripting Guide http://tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/  
3 years ago

Calensito
Really helpful for me, since i install Linux a few days ago.
Thanks man!
 
3 years ago

michaeltristan
Very well written and to the point. Great set of basic/new user commands clearly defined to get folks on the good foot. Well done, thank you.  
3 years ago

kiranguhagarkar
very good tutorial.  
3 years ago

pana
Excellent tutorial for beginners, and nice article for anyone on Linux.
I know a lot of this commands, but I refresh my knowledge.
Thanks.
 
3 years ago

HarryKnutz
very much needed....thanks for your time and effort
 
3 years ago

ndixon
Nice introduction, though maybe you could mention that 'mv' is also used to rename files?

Also, neat tip: "cd -" alternates between the directory you're in now and your previous location
 
3 years ago

ashtoash
Somewhere I have already read about that :-)

Good article on the basic shell commands.

 
3 years ago

Mason-
Great, I knew most of this but the information is great and just to review is always a bonus. Thanks a lot.  
3 years ago

wanda
Very gread , good tutorial!  
3 years ago

samriggs
Great tutorial.
Turned it into a pdf and saved it my wife wanted to learn more so now she has a pdf of it.
Thanks again
 
3 years ago

yellowpike
All I can say is THANK YOU !!!  
3 years ago

Tonya
Many thanks! Very good tutorial!  
3 years ago

thephoenix
A good information for beginner on how to start using the terminal. Nice tutorial, thanks!  
3 years ago

jimmyMaruchan
Awesome! Thanks!  
3 years ago

Kalingamahesh
very useful..  
3 years ago

studentbong
Nice One... This help those who transfer from windows like me.. Thank you so much..  
3 years ago

Flanschbob
Great tutorial, but two things are missing to make it complete:
- Quick tip #6 should mention the use of the arrow up/down keys to load used commands
- It should be mentioned that your password is 'invisible' when typing it in. this is quite unusual and very confusing for beginners.
 
3 years ago

Saints_Dazza
Nice! Good intro to terminal. Great starting point for a seasoned MS user making the transition to Linux.  
3 years ago

kakapyly
thank you!  
3 years ago

kdh333
Nice tutorial...well done...;-)  
3 years ago

kevr
@jhpassarelli, this guide is named "The 5-Minute Essential Shell Tutorial", not "The 5-Minute GUI Tutorial"  
3 years ago

jhpassarelli
There is a GUI way to mount ISO images... just right click an ISO amage and select "Open With Archive Mounter". That's all there is to it!  
3 years ago

baldwiew
Nice and quick for newbies and a reminder for the likes of me, almost stuck in the GUI world.  
3 years ago

spyngamerman
thanks nice and easy to understand for a noob like myself command lines normally scare me but your tutorial definitely takes the edge off ;)  
3 years ago

henrymak
This is the first time I use Linux and this tutorials is really helpful. I spent a lot of time just trying to understand some of the terms used in the forum and articles. There should be more tutorials like this to help more people like me migrating to Linux. A glossary of the technical words use in Linux will be most welcome.  
3 years ago

troyM
Thank Justin, I just used the Terminal to remove openoffice.org and install libreoffice. Keep up the tutorials!  
3 years ago

kephalian
I am a newbie to linux, I like this tutorial. I was long trapped with the Vendor M5 WIND0z, shopkeeper GATE.Linux is For me.OPEN SOURCE ROCKZZ.  
3 years ago

cphayes0882
Its funny how the terminal at first glance can scare ya, then you read a tutorial like this and see how relatively simple the commands really are. Thanks a million for this tutorial.  
3 years ago

Twix2247
I just switch to Linux from windows (Downloaded Julia x64). I was a pretty good windows user and have a lot to learn about Linux. The basic Terminal commands are something new to me since I was used to MSDOS promt. Thanks for posting this.  
3 years ago

Blanton
Thank you for this quick guide. Absolutely a must have in the linux communities as a whole :).  
3 years ago

linus
Thanks!! It's really helpfull  
3 years ago

mikefreeman
Very helpful for the uninitiated! :)  
3 years ago

rubul
thnx  
3 years ago

kriskardiak
Thanx  
3 years ago

angelomat08
just using this linux mint 10..thanks..i'll try this..^^  
3 years ago

numn
Everything is in here!
Beginners will thank you for this :)
Thanx for the tip with gksudo!
 
3 years ago

Sol_Badguy
Very useful to beginners...  
3 years ago

Qruqs
Lots of good information.  
3 years ago

grim
Beginner friendly and pretty awesome indeed! Thanks :D  
3 years ago

blacx
very useful for the beginners... :)  
3 years ago

jahwarrior4179
I Like it.  
3 years ago

morris_hunt
I need to download a WIFI driver for Linuxmint 9, that is inside Windows 7, and learn how to make it operate! Can some help me by Chatting in Yahoo Messenger, or by Email,mwh2222@yahoo.com, I am Morris Hunt, mwh2222 in Yahoo Messenger!  
3 years ago

dorus43
Very nice summary

Thanks
 
3 years ago

sandyv
Great tips for someone thats as brain dead as I seem to be at times!

Thanks much! :)
 
3 years ago

Shostako
Very good first tutorial for the beginners. Great work.  
3 years ago

itonggant
thx  
3 years ago

corinoco
Useful also to older noobs coming back to *nix after an 18-year absence.  
3 years ago

SeaCorpseDan
Thanks for taking the time to write this tutorial. Really helped out a linux noob.  
4 years ago

linXea
I like the idea of a quick how-to ... Of course the "man" command will be the most effective to learn the actual use of the commands.  
4 years ago

merelyjim
Printed to PDF so I can have something to share with other while in an off-line environment. Nicely done.  
4 years ago

johnnyp
very nice ... i learned some new trix  
4 years ago

Dervheid
If all tutorials were this well done, there'd be a whole lot more people digging in deeper. I wanna learn, this doesn't scare me off... :)  
4 years ago

southsidesam
Good noobe article  
4 years ago

eerika_
Awesome article, Justin. Good work

Erika
 
4 years ago

Ki3rk3gaard
Truly MINTy fresh now I can be a hero in a half shell ! I have been putting it off but you've removed some of that initial aversion .  
4 years ago

crivote
most useful for newcomers and people like me, used to just c&p terminal commands from googled tips pages. Thanks for providing some light and clear explanations.  
4 years ago

Lexux
Great Work, very good tutorial. Thanks :)  
4 years ago

udana071
As a beginner I think I've 2 read this many times.. :D  
4 years ago

tincotts
Tincotts Having used Linux for 6 or more years, Ive always worried about
using the terminal, even though familiar (once!) with the old Dos notation. I feel far more confident now in attempting to try my hand. Very grateful for the info.
 
4 years ago

Shardon
For someone who was raised on the old DOS command environment, this was most helpful. Amazing how old habits seem to just hang out in the memory banks and when in terminal the urge to use them just comes crashing forward. Nice quick overview and very helpful.  
4 years ago

sayry
********  
4 years ago

d_zaxc
good work. thanks.  
4 years ago

KittyKatt
Awesome article, justin. Good work. :D  
4 years ago

gallus_gallus
the shell never goes out of style, thanks for making it easier for us  
4 years ago

Ed_Frost
Very helpful, thanks a lot!  
4 years ago

m4daredsun
Very nice. Thanks  
4 years ago

wdliming
good  
4 years ago

gee7
Good article, Justin.

Two things, though, Page Down and Q.

Remember as a newboy to Linux how easy it is to get baffled. For example, after using the command "man application-name" or "info application-name" such as "info gnome-terminal" some of the information will be shown. It would be useful to explain in the tutorial (1) how to see the rest of the info by repeatedly pressing the Down Arrow on the keyboard or by one click on Page Down and (2) more importantly, how to escape from this info and return to your home at ~$: by pressing the Q key (for quit). I guess that many inexperienced users can only escape from their current page by closing the terminal altogether and then opening it up again to start something new.

Also some new users may worry that the processes will continue after closing the terminal, so It's also worth mentioning at the beginning that that closing the terminal by typing "exit" ("exit" and then "exit" to close down root, then user) or by clicking the cross in the top right corner will kill the processes that you have been running in the terminal, either as root or as user. As an introduction, how to open and close an application (and how to escape from some its processes) is always a good start.

It's all very useful stuff, your article can then move from the most basic to the semi-skilled. Thanks for caring.
 
4 years ago

thermodynamics4
Very well done, i was looking in another places and is a bunch of commands that is not easy to learn at first look. So this is nice and usefull, Suhana point me to the right direction. Thanks Mint Community!  
4 years ago

nolarut
Great info, thanks for posting.  
4 years ago

kevr
seen tons of new folks asking for pointers to a page with beginning tutorials to the linux shell. this one is laid out right here for you, just don't skip sections. very nice :]  
4 years ago

Deadguy
very nice intro to the shell Justin!!  
4 years ago

navigator1
good job !!!!!!!thanks  
4 years ago

leleyx
Really liked it, I'm a complet n00b to linux, but been playing with MS Command Prompt since monkey years, and love that I can do it again, weird, huh?  
4 years ago

Karlozkiller
Really good one, been using different Linux distributions on and off but never really learned too much about shell scripts and such.

This is great!
 
4 years ago

hatani
Thanks! I know some of the basics, but stuff about (gk)sudo and iso mounting was very helpful.  
4 years ago

heltonbiker
Hi, Man!

I was thinking about a tutorial on shell script, which we haven't here yet, and I found this one. It's very good! So I think you could write the next Shell Tutorial, this time teaching people how to save the commands to a .sh file, writing the shebang, making it executable, and so on. It is amazing that a process like this is almost unknown outside linux world, and I for one had been using it a lot earlier if someone taught me how easy and useful it can be.

Thanks for caring!
 
4 years ago

justin
Thank you everyone for the positive votes, it is greatly appreciated! If there is anything one thinks should be added, please post. Thanks.  
4 years ago

Bunstonious
Good start Justin.

This is a sorely needed start for those users that "just don't quite get it" but I am afraid that there are many others that still wouldn't be bothered.

I for one appreciate the effort that you have put into this. Kudos.
 
4 years ago

justin
@dbpatankar - Agreed, I'm still on the fence about that actually. Abuse of rm -rf just like any others can have drastic consequences. I'll add it with warnings.  
4 years ago

dbpatankar
Great start....... congrats!
may be 'rm -rf folder' will also be useful.
Since no user will like to confirm descending in each folder.
 
4 years ago

justin
This is probably incomplete at the current time, but your thoughts are appreciated. Please let me know. Thank you.  

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